The characteristics of the urine provide diagnostic clues about many different diseases. The urine's color, quantity, odor, and sediment, as well as difficulties in controlling its flow, can all be indicators of conditions originating both in the genitourinary system and elsewhere in the body.
An adult usually urinates about 6 times each day, excreting a total of about a quart and a half of urine. Normal urine is straw colored and has a sharp but not unpleasant odor. Painful Urination, or dysuria, is a distressing symptom that should always be investigated by a doctor.
Causes of urination problems
Blood in the urine is usually the first warning signal of bladder cancer. The blood often appears suddenly, and pain may or may not be present. In some cases, however, the bleeding leads to discomfort because blood clots form and cause painful muscle spasms in the bladder.
A stone that has formed in the bladder or passed from the kidney to the bladder causes pain as well as a frequent urge to urinate. Blood, pus, and albumin (a protein) may also be present in the urine. The muscle contractions of the bladder and urethra may push small stones out of the body within several hours, but larger ones are often extremely painful and require immediate surgical removal.
This bladder infection, which affects women more often than men, may be acute or chronic. Pain in the pubic area and painful, burning sensations when urinating are common symptoms, along with frequent urination and an urge to urinate when the bladder appears to be empty. In the chronic form, the urine may also be cloudy, bloody, or foul smelling.
Enlarged prostate gland
This condition affects many men over the age of 40 but usually becomes a problem around age 60. Pain and discomfort develop in the area of the prostate, which is just below the bladder and close to the rectum. Urination, which is frequent and urgent (particularly at night), causes burning pain. The urine stream tends to be weak and slow to start, and it is difficult to empty the bladder completely.