Formula Medical Group
Apple Valley, CA
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James Krider, MD


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Vegetables

Serving size of various vegetables.

Why is it important to eat vegetables?

Tips to help you eat vegetables.

Serving size (1 cup equivalent) of vegetable subgroups based nutrient content.

Dark-Green Vegetables

    • Broccoli – 1 cup chopped or florets, 3 spears 5” long raw or cooked
    • Greens (collards, mustard, turnip, kale, spinach) – 1 cup cooked, 2 cups raw.
    • Raw leafy greens (spinach, romaine, watercress, dark green leafy lettuce, endive, escarole) – 2 cups raw

Orange vegetables

    • Carrots – 1 cup, 1 medium, 1 cup baby carrots (about 12)
    • Pumpkin – 1 cup mashed, cooked
    • Sweetpotato – 1 large baked (2 ¼” or more diameter)
    • Winter squash (acorn, butternut, Hubbard) – 1 cup cubed, cooked

Dry beans and peas

    • Black, garbanzo, kidney, pinto, or soy beans, or black eyed peas or split peas – 1 cup whole or mashed, cooked
    • Tofu – 1 cup ½” cubes (about 8 ounces)

Starchy Vegetables

    • Corn, yellow or white – 1 cup or 1 large ear (8” to 9” long)
    • Green peas – 1cup
    • White potatoes – 1 cup diced, mashed; 1 medium boiled or baked (2 ½” to 3”), French fried (20 medium to long strips 2 ½” to 4”))

Other vegetables

    • Bean sprouts – 1 cup cooked
    • Cabbage, green – 1 cup, chopped or shredded, raw or cooked
    • Cauliflower – 1 cup pieces or florets raw or cooked
    • Celery – 1 cup, diced or sliced, raw or cooked; 2 large stalks (11” to 12” long)
    • Cucumbers – 1 cup raw, sliced or chopped
    • Green or wax beans – 1 cup cooked
    • Green or red peppers – 1 cup chopped, raw or cooked; 1 large pepper (3” diameter, 3 ¾” long)
    • Lettuce, iceberg or head – 2 cups raw, shredded or chopped
    • Mushrooms – 1 cup raw or cooked
    • Onions – 1 cup chopped, raw or cooked
    • Tomatoes – 1 large raw whole (3”); 1 cup chopped or sliced, raw, canned, or cooked
    • Tomato or mixed vegetable juice – 1 cup
    • Summer squash or zucchini – 1 cup cooked, sliced or diced

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Why is it important to eat vegetables?
Eating vegetables provides health benefits — people who eat more fruits and vegetables as part of an overall healthy diet are likely to have a reduced risk of some chronic diseases. Vegetables provide nutrients vital for health and maintenance of your body.

Health benefits

  • Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables as part of an overall healthy diet may reduce risk for stroke and perhaps other cardiovascular diseases.
  • Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables as part of an overall healthy diet may reduce risk for type 2 diabetes.
  • Eating a diet rich in fruits and vegetables as part of an overall healthy diet may protect against certain cancers, such as mouth, stomach, and colon-rectum cancer.
  • Diets rich in foods containing fiber, such as fruits and vegetables, may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease.
  • Eating fruits and vegetables rich in potassium as part of an overall healthy diet may reduce the risk of developing kidney stones and may help to decrease bone loss.
  • Eating foods such as vegetables that are low in calories per cup instead of some other higher-calorie food may be useful in helping to lower calorie intake.

Nutrients
Click on the nutrient name to learn more about that particular nutrient.

  • Most vegetables are naturally low in fat and calories. None have cholesterol. (Sauces or seasonings may add fat, calories, or cholesterol.)
  • Vegetables are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fiber, folate (folic acid), vitamin A, vitamin E, and vitamin C. Potassium rich nutrients
  • Diets rich in potassium may help to maintain healthy blood pressure. Vegetable sources of potassium include sweetpotatoes, white potatoes, white beans, tomato products (paste, sauce, and juice), beet greens, soybeans, lima beans, winter squash, spinach, lentils, kidney beans, and split peas.
  • Dietary fiber from vegetables, as part of an overall healthy diet, helps reduce blood cholesterol levels and may lower risk of heart disease. Fiber is important for proper bowel function. It helps reduce constipation and diverticulosis. Fiber-containing foods such as vegetables help provide a feeling of fullness with fewer calories.
  • Folate (folic acid) helps the body form red blood cells. Women of childbearing age who may become pregnant and those in the first trimester of pregnancy should consume adequate folate, including folic acid from fortified foods or supplements. This reduces the risk of neural tube defects, spina bifida, and anencephaly during fetal development.
  • Vitamin A keeps eyes and skin healthy and helps to protect against infections.
  • Vitamin E helps protect vitamin A and essential fatty acids from cell oxidation.
  • Vitamin C helps heal cuts and wounds and keeps teeth and gums healthy. Vitamin C aids in iron absorption.

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Tips to help you eat vegetables

In general:

  • Buy fresh vegetables in season. They cost less and are likely to be at their peak flavor.
  • Stock up on frozen vegetables for quick and easy cooking in the microwave.
  • Buy vegetables that are easy to prepare. Pick up pre-washed bags of salad Carrotsgreens and add baby carrots or grape tomatoes for a salad in minutes. Buy packages of vegetables such as baby carrots or celery sticks for quick snacks.
  • Use a microwave to quickly “zap” vegetables. White or sweet potatoes can be baked quickly this way.
  • Vary your veggie choices to keep meals interesting.
  • Try crunchy vegetables, raw or lightly steamed.

For the best nutritional value:

  • Select vegetables with more potassium often, such as sweetpotatoes, white potatoes, white beans, tomato products (paste, sauce, and juice), beet greens, soybeans, lima beans, winter squash, spinach, lentils, kidney beans, and split peas.
  • Less sodium Sauces or seasonings can add calories, fat, and sodium to vegetables. Use the Nutrition Facts label to compare the calories and % Daily Value for fat and sodium in plain and seasoned vegetables.
  • Prepare more foods from fresh ingredients to lower sodium intake. Most sodium in the food supply comes from packaged or processed foods.
  • Buy canned vegetables labeled “no salt added.” If you want to add a little salt it will likely be less than the amount in the regular canned product.

Stir fry At meals:

  • Plan some meals around a vegetable main dish, such as a vegetable stir-fry or soup. Then add other foods to complement it.
  • Try a main dish salad for lunch. Go light on the salad dressing.
  • Include a green salad with your dinner every night.
  • Shred carrots or zucchini into meatloaf, casseroles, quick breads, and muffins.
  • Vegetarian pizza Include chopped vegetables in pasta sauce or lasagna.
  • Order a veggie pizza with toppings like mushrooms, green peppers, and onions, and ask for extra veggies.
  • Use pureed, cooked vegetables such as potatoes to thicken stews, soups and gravies. These add flavor, nutrients, and texture.
  • Grill vegetable kabobs as part of a barbecue meal. Try tomatoes, mushrooms, green peppers, and onions.

Make vegetables more appealing:

  • Many vegetables taste great with a dip or dressing. Try a low-fat salad dressing with raw broccoli, red and green peppers, celery sticks or cauliflower.
  • Add color to salad Add color to salads by adding baby carrots, shredded red cabbage, or spinach leaves. Include in-season vegetables for variety through the year.
  • Include cooked dry beans or peas in flavorful mixed dishes, such as chili or minestrone soup.
  • Decorate plates or serving dishes with vegetable slices.
  • Keep a bowl of cut-up vegetables in a see-through container in the refrigerator. Carrot and celery sticks are traditional, but consider broccoli florettes, cucumber slices, or red or green pepper strips.

Vegetables as snacks Vegetable tips for children:

  • Set a good example for children by eating vegetables with meals and as snacks.
  • Let children decide on the dinner vegetables or what goes into salads.
  • Depending on their age, children can help shop for, clean, peel, or cut up vegetables.
  • Allow children to pick a new vegetable to try while shopping.
  • Use cut-up vegetables as part of afternoon snacks.
  • Children often prefer foods served separately. So, rather than mixed vegetables try serving two vegetables separately.

Keep it safe:

  • Clean vegetablesWash vegetables before preparing or eating them. Under clean, running water, rub vegetables briskly with your hands to remove dirt and surface microorganisms. Dry after washing.
  • Keep vegetables separate from raw meat, poultry and seafood while shopping, preparing, or storing.

source: USDA

This article was last reviewed March 7, 2006 by Dr. James Krider.

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